Environmental Testing

CO2 Emission Calculation


CO2 Emission Calculation

CO2 Emission Calculation

CO2 emission factor and oxidation factor calculation and sampling services, helping clients meet European Directive 2003/87/EC, Section 111 of the Clean Air Act in the United States

StarLabs provides impartial data for determination of emission and oxidation factors, enabling clients to engage in greenhouse gas emission allowance trading.

StarLabs has qualified experts to help you to calculate CO2 emissions in matrices such as natural gas, fuel gas, refinery gas, process gas, oil gas, fuel oil, pet-coke, coal, anthracite, and other products.

Evaluating how your products and services meet and exceed quality, safety, sustainability and performance standards.

Calculation factors based on analysis:

StarLabs ensures that emission factor related analyses, sampling, calibration and validation activities for the determination of calculation factors are carried out by applying methods based on corresponding U.S. and EU standards.

Calculations of emissions shall be performed using the formula:

Activity data × Emission factor × Oxidation factor




We calculate emissions from electricity generation based off figures from the EPA’s eGRID emission factors based on 2012 data published in 2015.

On average, electricity sources emit 1.222lbs CO2 per kWh (0.0005925 metric tons CO2 per kWh). State CO2 emissions per kWh may vary greatly in accordance with the amount of clean energy in the energy supply (Vermont: 0.0055 lbs/kWh; North Dakota: 2.0685 lbs/kWh).

EPA eGRID Summary Tables

Natural Gas

There are 0.00548 metric tonnes of CO2 per 1 therm of natural gas.

U.S. Department of Energy

US avg.: In 2014, 67.2 million households used natural gas. Collectively, they used 5.1 billion cubic feet of natural gas annually, or 730.84 CCF (approximately 748.38 therms) per household or 283.27 CCF (approximately 290.07 therms) per person per household using natural gas.

Energy Information Agency, US Census Bureau

Heating Oil

There are 10.15 kg of CO2 per gallon of home heating oil.

US DOE 1605(b) Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program

US average: In 2014, 3.8 billion gallons of heating oil were consumed by 7.7 million households resulting in an average of 493.9 gallons per household or 197.56 gallons per person per household using heating oil.

DOE EIA Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 2014



Unleaded gasoline emits 8.91 kg of CO2 per gallon.

US DOE 1605(b) Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program

Air Travel

CO2 emissions in air travel vary by length of flight, ranging from 0.254 kg CO2e per passenger mile to 0.144 kg CO2e per passenger mile, depending on the flight distance.

Our calculator allows the user to take the issue of radiative forcing into account.

EPA Climate Leaders, table 8, page 4.

Rail Travel

Cut your CO2 emissions by taking the train, by up to 90%!

  • The CO2 emissions for rail travel vary by distance of the trip.
  • On average, commuter rail emits 0.17 kgs CO2e per passenger mile and subway trains emit 0.121 kgs CO2e per passenger mile, and long distance trains (i.e., intercity rail) emit 0.137 kgs CO2e per passenger mile.
Bus Travel

On average, bus trips emit 0.055kgs CO2e per passenger mile.

EPA Climate Leaders table 8, page 4

Road and transportation conditions vary in real life beyond what can be estimated. To ensure that our bus calculator fully covers your trip, we add 10% to the total mileage of your trip to account for potential traffic jams, detours, and pit-stops that may arise on your trip.

Annual share of U.S. net electricity generation by source
Annual share of U.S. net electricity generation by source

Annual share of U.S. net electricity generation by source


Natural gas surpassed coal in mix of fuel used for U.S. power generation in 2016.



Monthly Energy Review (Energy Information Administration, Sept. 2017)

United States Emissions by Sector
United States Emissions by Sector

US Emissions by Sector


Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency)

Need help or have a question? +1 (800) 494-1219